• General Studies – 1
  • General Studies – 2
  • General Studies – 3
  • General Studies – 4

Western and Indian Philosophy

  1. Western Philosophy and Thinkers


  • The Ethics of Plato
  • The Ethics of Aristotle
  • Stoicism


  • Epicureanism
  • Utilitarianism


  • Thomas Hobbes
  • John Locke
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • John Rawls


  • The Ethics of Immanuel Kant
  • Natural-Rights Theory
  • Divine Right of Kings
  • Libertarianism

Moral Realism and Antirealism
Ethical Relativism

The Problem of Moral Responsibility

  • Freedom and Responsibility
  • Determinism
  • Libertarianism
  • Compatibilism
  • Continuity and Change

Feminist Ethics-Carol Gilligan

Existentialist Ethics- Jean Paul Sartre

2.      Indian Philosophy and Thinkers

  • Vedic Philosophy
  • Bhagavat Gita
  • Buddist Ethics
  • Jaina Ethics
  • Indian Ethics in Modern and contemporary period
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Dayanand Saraswati
  • Mahatma Gandhi



  • Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G Subba Rao and PN Roy Chowdhary
  • Lexicon on Ethics- Chronicle
  • From Socrates to Sartre- A Philosophical Quest – T.Z.Lavine
  • The Story of Philosophy- Will Durant

2013 MAINS

  1. What do you understand by ‘values’ and ‘ethics’? In what way is it important to be ethical along with being professionally competent?
  2. Given below are three quotations of great moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these quotations, bring out what it means to you in the present context:
    (a) “There is enough on this earth for every one’s need but for no one’s greed.” Mahatma Gandhi
    (b) “Nearly all men can withstand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power”.-Abraham Lincoln
    (c) “I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies”.- Aristotle.
  3. Some people feel that values keep changing with time and situation, while others strongly believe that there are certain universal and eternal human values. Give your perception in this regard with due justification.

2014 MAINS

  1. (a) All human beings aspire for happiness. Do you agree? What does happiness mean to you? Explain with answers.  (b)What does ethics seek to promote in human life? Why is it all the more important in Public Administration?
  2. (a) Which eminent personality has inspired you the most in the context of ethical conduct in life? Give the Gist of his/her teachings. Giving specific examples describe how you have been able to apply these teachings for your own ethical development.
  3.  “Human beings should always be treated as ‘ends’ in themselves and never as ‘means’.” Explain the meaning and significance of this statement, giving it’s implications in the modern techno-economic society.

2015 MAINS

  1. Given are two quotations of moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these, bring out what it means to you in the present context.

(a) “The weak can never forgive; forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.’

(b) ‘We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.’