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Environment and Ecology

What UPSC says?

General issues on Environment and ecology, Bio diversity and climate change – that do not require subject specialization.

About the subject:

Environment and Ecology has occupied a prime spot in UPSC prelims since 2011 and UPSC has clearly mentioned that it does not expect subject specialization from you in this area. (No, you don’t have to know the scientific names of flowers and animals, nor do you have to get deep into topics such as botany, zoology etc)

The range of topics include environment, ecology, bio diversity, pollution, conservation, climate change, laws, treaties, bodies related to the same, sustainable development, sensitive areas, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, endangered species and so on.

The first step again is to start of with the static concepts from NCERTs and move on to the dynamic areas referring to newspapers, content on the Internet and some environment specific material available in the market.


As I mentioned at the beginning of the post, this is one area that can be the determinant of you clearing the exam. At least 80 percent of the questions are relatively simple and straightforward. This is one such area, where your efforts can directly correlate the marks scored. Any aspirant should give top most priority to this section in  UPSC Preliminary Exam.


  1. NCERT – Biology -7,8,9,10 and 12 th
  2. The Hindu
  3. Down to Earth
  4. NIOS study material
  5. Environment Studies:From Crisis to Cure – By R Rajagopalan